# Math::Constants

Math::Constants - A few constants defined in Raku

# SYNOPSIS

#!/usr/bin/env raku use Math::Constants; say "We have ", phi, " ", plancks-h, " ", plancks-reduced-h, " ", c, " ", G, " and ", fine-structure-constant, " plus ", elementary-charge, " and ", vacuum-permittivity ; say "And also φ ", φ, " α ", α, " ℎ ", ℎ, " and ℏ ", ℏ, " with e ", e, " and ε0 ", ε0; say "We are flying at speed ", .1c;

# DESCRIPTION

Math::Constants is a collection of Math and Physics constants that will save you the trouble of defining them.

## Constants included

### Physical constants

All the physical constants have the CODATA 2018 recommended values. These reflect the new definitions of the kilogram and ampere as of 2019-05-20.

Gravitational constant as

`gravitation-constant`

and`G`

.Speed of light as

`speed-of-light-vacuum`

and`c`

. It works also as a suffix for expressing speeds, as in`3c`

for 3 times the speed of light.Planck constant and reduced constant in J/s as

`plancks-h`

or`ℎ`

and`plancks-reduced-h`

or`ℏ`

.Boltzmann constant as

`boltzmann-constant`

or`k`

. Previous versions of Math::Constants had this in eV. The value is now in standard SI units. The eV postfix operator can be used to get the previous value if needed.Coulomb constant as

`coulomb-constant`

or`K0`

.Mass of an electron as

`electron-mass`

.Electron volt as

`electron-volt`

and`eV`

or as an operator.Elementary charge as

`elementary-charge`

or`q`

.Faraday constant as

`faraday-constant`

or`F`

.The fine structure constant as

`fine-structure-constant`

or`α`

.Gas constant as

`gas-constant`

or`R`

.Avogadro's constant as

`avogadro-constant`

or`L`

.Vacuum magnetic permeability as

`magnetic-permeability`

or`μ0`

.Mass of a neutron as

`neutron-mass`

.Planck length as

`planck-length`

or`lp`

.Planck mass as

`planck-mass`

or`mp`

.Planck temperature as

`planck-temperature`

or`Tp`

.Planck time as

`planck-time`

or`tp`

.Mass of a proton as

`proton-mass`

.The quantum ratio (elementary charge / Planck constant) as

`quantum-ratio`

.Standard acceleration due to gravity as

`standard-acceleration-gravity`

or`g`

.Vacuum electrical permittivity as

`vacuum-permittivity`

or`ε0`

.

### Mathematical constants

Golden ratio as

`phi`

or`φ`

.Feigenbaum constants as

`alpha-feigenbaum-constant`

and`delta-feigenbaum-constant`

or`δ`

.Apéry's constant as

`apery-constant`

.Conway's constant as

`conway-constant`

and`λ`

.Khinchin's constant as

`khinchin-constant`

and`k0`

.Glaisher–Kinkelin constant as

`glaisher-kinkelin-constant`

and`A`

.Golomb–Dickman constant as

`golomb-dickman-constant`

.Catalan's constant as

`catalan-constant`

.Mill's constant as

`mill-constant`

.Gauss's constant as

`gauss-constant`

.Euler–Mascheroni constant as

`euler-mascheroni-gamma`

and`γ`

.Sierpiński's constant as

`sierpinski-gamma`

and`K`

.

### Units

"Units" can be used as suffix; the number will be multiplied by its value

`eV`

, or electron-volts;`1.3eV`

is 1.3 divided by the`eV`

constant value.`c`

, speed of light.`g`

, gravitational constant.

# Issues and suggestions

Please post them in GitHub. Pull requests are also welcome.

# AUTHOR

JJ Merelo jjmerelo@gmail.com

Kevin Pye Kevin.Pye@gmail.com

# COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

Copyright 2016-2023 JJ Merelo

Copyright 2019 Kevin Pye

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the GPL 3.0.