# Raku Markdown::Grammar

## In brief

Markdown parser suitable for making converters of Markdown files into files of different kind of formats:

- Mathematica notebook
- RMarkdown notebook
- Jupyter notebook
- Pod6 file
- Org-mode file

See the video "Markdown to Mathematica converter (CLI and StackExchange examples)", [AAv1], for a (quick, 7.5 min) demo. The video [AAv2] shows the conversion of a Jupyter notebook into a Mathematica notebook via Markdown representation.

### Motivation

#### Mathematica notebooks

I am most interested in generating Mathematica notebooks from Markdown.

I have written a fair amount of Raku-related Markdown documents. Many of those Markdown documents were generated from Mathematica notebooks using M2MD, [JPp1]. But of course, most of the time, further changes and embellishments were made over those Markdown documents. Hence it would be very nice to be able to go back to Mathematica.

**Remark:** Raku can be used in Mathematica via the so called `RakuMode`

-- see [AA1].

**Remark:** Markdown documents with Raku code cells can be evaluated with Command Line Interface (CLI)
scripts of the package
"Text::CodeProcessing", [AAp1].
For more details see the article
"Connecting Mathematica and Raku", [AA1].

Here is a flowchart that gives better idea of the workflow outlined above:

```
graph TD
Rnb[Make Raku notebook in Mathematica]-->LT
LT[Literate programming]-->GE
GE{Good enough?}-->|yes|CN
CN[Convert notebook to Markdown]-->P
P["Publish (GitHUb/WordPress)"]-->SP
SP-->|yes|R
R[Review and modify]-->P
GE-->|no|LT
SP{Needs refinement?}-->|no|SD
SD{Significantly different?}-->|yes|CM
SD-->|no|PC
CM[Convert Markdown document to notebook]-->PC
PC["Publish to notebook Community.wolfram.com"]
```

#### Pod6

The notebook formats have syntax that makes it hard to evaluate the conversions visually. That is why I use Pod6 -- during development it is much easier to evaluate the Pod6 interpretations produced by the package. (I.e. no need to use another tool to open and evaluate the obtained conversion artifact.)

## Installation

From Zef ecosystem:

zef install Markdown::Grammar

From GitHub:

zef install https://github.com/antononcube/Raku-Markdown-Grammar.git

## Round trip translation

Consider the following round trip translation experiment:

Make a Mathematica notebook

Convert WL notebook into Markdown file with the Mathematica package M2MD

Convert the obtained Markdown file into Mathematica notebook using the Raku package "Markdown::Grammar"

Compare the notebooks

Here is the corresponding flowchart:

```
graph TD
WL[Make a Mathematica notebook] --> E
E["Examine notebook(s)"] --> M2MD
M2MD["Convert to Markdown with M2MD"] --> MG
MG["Convert to Mathematica with Markdown::Grammar"] --> |Compare|E
```

## Related work

Here is a table of converters from- or to Markdown:

From \ To | HTML | Jupyter | Markdown | Mathematica | Pod6 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

HTML | pandoc | pandoc | |||

Jupyter | Jupyter | Jupyter, jupytext | |||

Markdown | pandoc, Markit, Text::Markdown | jupytext | Markdown2WL, Markdown::Grammar | Markdown::Grammar | |

Mathematica | M2MD | ||||

Pod6 | Pod::To::Markdown |

**Remark:** Pandoc attempts to be an universal converter, applicable for all couples of formats.

**Remark:** Except
"this package"
there are no other converters from Markdown to
Pod6.

**Remark:** In general I like the idea of a Markdown-to-Mathematica converter written in Mathematica.
The package
"Markdown2WL"
attempts that, but unfortunately it is fairly incomplete.

## Command line interface

The package provides a Command Line Interface (CLI) script, `from-markdown`

. Here is its usage message:

> from-markdown --help # Usage: # from-markdown [-t|--to=<Str>] [-l|--default-language=<Str>] [--raku-code-cell-name=<Str>] [-d|--docked-cells] [-o|--output=<Str>] <text> -- Converts Markdown files into Mathematica notebooks or Pod6 files. # # <text> Input file or Markdown text. # -t|--to=<Str> Format to convert to. (One of 'mathematica' or 'pod6'.) [default: 'mathematica'] # -l|--default-language=<Str> Default language. [default: 'Mathematica'] # --raku-code-cell-name=<Str> Raku code cell name. [default: 'Whatever'] # -d|--docked-cells Should formula conversion button be added as a docked cell or not? (Mathematica only.) [default: False] # -o|--output=<Str> Output file; if an empty string then the result is printed to stdout. [default: ''] (

The CLI script `from-markdown`

takes both file names and (Markdown) text. Here is an usage example for the latter:

> from-markdown -to=pod6 'Here is data wrangling code: obj = dfTitanic; obj = GroupBy[ obj, #["passengerSex"]& ]; Echo[Map[ Length, obj], "counts:"] ## References' # =begin # =para # Here is data wrangling code: # =begin code # obj = dfTitanic; # obj = GroupBy[ obj, #["passengerSex"]& ]; # Echo[Map[ Length, obj], "counts:"] # =end code # =begin head2 # References # =end head2 # =end pod

**Remark:** Using the CLI script with the option setting `--raku-cell-code-name=RakuInputExecute`

produces
Raku cells that require the Mathematica package "RakuMode.m", [AAp2], to be loaded and the command `RakuMode[]`

to be executed in the result notebook.

## Usage example

Consider the following Markdown text:

my $mtext = q:to/END/; Here is data wrangling code: obj = dfTitanic; obj = GroupBy[ obj, #["passengerSex"]& ]; Echo[Map[ Length, obj], "counts:"] ## References ### Articles [AA1] Anton Antonov, ["Introduction to data wrangling with Raku"](https://rakuforprediction.wordpress.com/2021/12/31/introduction-to-data-wrangling-with-raku/), (2021), [RakuForPrediction at WordPress](https://rakuforprediction.wordpress.com). END say $mtext.chars;

```
# 410
```

Here is the corresponding Mathematica notebook:

use Markdown::Grammar; from-markdown($mtext, to => 'mathematica')

```
# Notebook[{Cell[TextData[{"Here", " ", "is", " ", "data", " ", "wrangling", " ", "code:"}], "Text"], Cell[ BoxData["obj = dfTitanic;
# obj = GroupBy[ obj, #[\"passengerSex\"]& ];
# Echo[Map[ Length, obj], \"counts:\"]
# "], "Input"], Cell[TextData[{"References"}], "Section"], Cell[TextData[{"Articles"}], "Subsection"], Cell[TextData[{"[AA1]", " ", "Anton", " ", "Antonov,", " ", ButtonBox["\"Introduction to data wrangling with Raku\"", BaseStyle -> "Hyperlink", ButtonData -> { URL["https://rakuforprediction.wordpress.com/2021/12/31/introduction-to-data-wrangling-with-raku/"], None}], " ", ",", " ", "(2021),", " ", ButtonBox["RakuForPrediction at WordPress", BaseStyle -> "Hyperlink", ButtonData -> { URL["https://rakuforprediction.wordpress.com"], None}], " ", "."}], "Text"]}]
```

Here is the corresponding Pod6 text:

from-markdown($mtext, to => 'pod6')

```
# =begin
# =para
# Here is data wrangling code:
# =begin code
# obj = dfTitanic;
# obj = GroupBy[ obj, #["passengerSex"]& ];
# Echo[Map[ Length, obj], "counts:"]
# =end code
# =begin head2
# References
# =end head2
#
# =begin head3
# Articles
# =end head3
#
# =para
# [AA1] Anton Antonov,
# L<"Introduction to data wrangling with Raku"|https://rakuforprediction.wordpress.com/2021/12/31/introduction-to-data-wrangling-with-raku/> ,
# (2021),
# L<RakuForPrediction at WordPress|https://rakuforprediction.wordpress.com> .
# =end pod
```

## TODOs

The most important items are placed first.

DONE Parsing bold, italic, code "words."

TODO Parsing bold, italic, code "phrases."

DONE Parsing blocks with bold, italic formatting specs

DONE Parsing code blocks given with indentation.

DONE Parsing and interpretation of "deferred" links. E.g.

`[![enter image description here][1]][1]`

.- This is somewhat complicated, needing a "second pass" interpreter.
- The "second pass" is handled in the TOP action methods.

DONE Parsing quote lines and quote blocks

DONE Parsing tables

DONE Parsing LaTeX and/or math blocks

DONE Parsing inlined LaTeX code.

DONE Parsing LaTeX code with a docked cell button in the generated Mathematica notebook.

DONE Have option(s) for default language for code cells.

DONE Have option(s) for Raku code cell name.

TODO Have option(s) for skipping horizontal line specs.

TODO Parsing alternate syntax for heading 1 and 2

TODO Parsing escaping characters

TODO Parsing HTML

TODO Parsing most or all of the elements of the extended syntax, [MC1]

## Acknowledgments

Many thanks to Jakub (Kuba) Podkalicki for programming the package "M2MD", and helping me to understand a fair amount of Mathematica's low-Level notebook programming.

## References

### Articles

[AA1] Anton Antonov, "Connecting Mathematica and Raku", (2021), RakuForPrediction at WordPress.

[FZ1] Faizon Zaman, "Parsing markdown files", (2021), Community.wolfram.com.

### Guides

[JG1] John Gruber, Markdown: Syntax.

[MC1] Matt Cone, Markdown Guide.

[RC1] Raku Community, Raku Pod6.

### Packages

[AAp1] Anton Antonov Text::CodeProcessing Raku package, (2021-2022), GitHub/antononcube.

[AAp2] Anton Antonov RakuMode Mathematica package, (2021), ConversationalAgents at GitHub/antononcube.

[FZp1] Faizon Zaman, Markdown2WL Mathematica package, (2021), GitHub/dishmint.

[JPp1] Jakub Podkalicki, M2MD, (2018-2022), GitHub/kubaPod.

### Videos

[AAv1] Anton Antonov, "Markdown to Mathematica converter (CLI and StackExchange examples)", (2022), Anton A. Antonov's channel at YouTube.

[AAv2] Anton Antonov, "Markdown to Mathematica converter (Jupyter notebook example)", (2022), Anton A. Antonov's channel at YouTube.